This is the process of becoming adjusted to an environment or to any conditions in an organism's life. Adaptation also refers to the result of this process.

Pests tend to be very good at adapting to their surroundings and this gives them an edge.

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For example, a farmer sprays a field:
  1. The weeds that didn't survive the spraying die out.
  2. But some weeds may survive.
  3. These continue growing and eventually reproduce.
  4. A year later the weeds are back and the farmer sprays that field.
  5. Again, some weeds survive, unfortunately because the gene pool now has more of those adapted to survive the spraying, this time there is a higher percentage of survivors and a smaller percentage is killed.
  6. These survivors continue growing and eventually reproduce.
  7. After a few years of the spraying leaving some weeds surviving, the only weeds left in the field are those whose parents survived the spraying.
  8. The repeated spraying has selected the weeds most able to survive the spraying. This field is now resistant to the sprays that have been used. The repeated spraying has turned a weed problem into an intractable problem. These plants must have something that allows them to survive the spraying. They may
  9. So, the spraying has just pushed evolution along in a direction that does not benefit the farmer.

It is not the spray that has done it. Rather, it is the repeated use of an effective tool or technique.

It is not the strongest of the species who survive,
not the most intelligent, but
those who are the most adaptive to change
Charles Darwin
This is an example of individual weeds adapting to changed circumstances. As a result of those weeds surviving while others didn't, the population of the field adapted to the new circumstances.

An example of adaptation occurring in nature without assistance from humans is the shape of the beak of any bird species. This is the result of that bird species adjusting to the food sources it has had around it during the time it evolved.

Beak shape is an evolutionary adjustment by a species, rather than one made by an individual bird.

An adjustment or adaptation made by an individual bird is seen when a crow or a galah (an Australian cockatoo) feeds on the roadside and doesn't take flight despite the passing traffic, unless something unusual happens.

These and many other species of birds have learnt to feed well on animals killed by cars or on grain spilled from trucks. The adaptation is to the traffic, something that would normally scare them.

Some birds become over-adapted and don't take flight when they need to and as a result they become the next feed for a crow.

Adaptation is a key part of succession which is such a big factor in nature and farming. It has long-term and short-term forms: Unfortunately, adaptation happens a lot quicker in most farming situations than it does in the wild. This is because
As a result, those organisms that are not able to survive the pressure die out rapidly. So, the survivors are left with little competition and they do very well.

Heed the old saying:
That which changes, lasts.
That which doesn't, doesn't.
Essentially, life is a constant process of adaptation, for microbes, plants and animals, including humans. We either adapt or become like the dinosaurs - headed for personal or species extinction.

And it is the same for farming and grazing systems. We either adapt our farming and grazing systems to changing circumstances or they will cease to be successful in the new environment. For example: